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Saturday, 25 June 2011

HYDROGEN WATER


HYDROGEN WATER

Redox Reaction (Reduction, oxidation)

In high school chemistry we learned that the redox reaction or oxidation-reduction is the most universal, fundamental chemical reaction - as well as most important - of all chemical concepts.
It is the key to understanding whether a chemical 'meeting' between elements or compounds yields a donating of energy (reduction) or a decay of energy (oxidation).
The problem of life and death as well as health and sickness could, therefore, be explained and demonstrated by the concept of redox reaction. We can recap these concepts with a following analogy. Copper(Cu) loses its glitter by oxidation and is restored by reduction. In quite the same way, a cell unit (call it Cu) is damaged (made sick) by oxidation and is restored (cured) by reduction resulting in the production of H2O
Stage 1 Oxidation of Cell unit 2Cu + O2 –›2CuO
Stage 2 Reduction of oxidized(damaged) Cu
CuO + H2 –› Cu + H2O

Read more: http://ionlife.info/water-alkalizers-hydrogen.html#ixzz1QI3HYZNn

Hydrogen internal combustion engine

Hydrogen internal combustion engine

Hydrogen is an attractive transportation fuel in three important ways: it is the least polluting fuel that can be used in an internal combustion engine.  It is potentially available wherever there is water and a clean source of power.  The data presented in the table show that when 1 gram of hydrogen burns it yields more energy than the same amount of conventional fuels.  The principle combustion product of hydrogen is water.  Hydrogen combustion vehicles do not produce any carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, particulates, sulphur oxides, ozone, lead, smoke, benzene or carbon dioxide or other ‘greenhouse gases’.  The only pollutant of concern is NOx which is formed, as in all internal combustion engines, from nitrogen taken from the air during combustion.  It is thought that an ultra-lean engine would produce very little NOx. 
 
Energy produced when a gram of fuel is combusted.
Fuel
Energy Produced During Combustion
/kJ g-1
Hydrogen gas (H2)
143
Methane gas (CH4)
56
Petrol (octane, C8H18)
48
Coal (carbon, C)
33
Ethanol (C2H5OH)
30
Methanol (CH3OH)
23
Carbohydrates (e.g. C6H12O6)
16
Carbon monoxide gas (CO)
10

Electricity from Hydrogen

Electricity from Hydrogen

Electricity can be produced simply by the reaction of hydrogen and oxygen in a fuel cell.  It is essentially the reverse of the process of electrolytic production of hydrogen from water.  Fuel cells permit direct conversion of chemical energy into electrical energy resulting in practical efficiencies of between 60 and 70%.  This compares very favourably with the generation of electrical energy by means of heat engines; the primary chemical energy must be converted several times.  Each conversion results in losses so that typical efficiencies for this system lies in the region of 15 to 30%.
 

Fuel Cell

Chemical Energy           Electrical Energy
 

Heat Engine

Chemical energy           Heat Energy           Mechanical Work            Electrical Energy
 
There are many different types of fuel cells all of which operate using the same basic principle but which vary depending on the type of fuel, type of oxidant, ion conducted through the electrolyte and temperature of operation.  There is growing commercial interest in the development of such fuel cells for domestic purposes.  For instance the Swiss company Sulzer Hexis hope to have a domestic solid oxide fuel cell on the market in 2001, this will convert natural gas or hydrogen directly into electrical power (1kW).  It will also produce about 3 kW of thermal power; an auxiliary burner will supply any heat required in excess of this.

Hydrogen and Future Energy Sources

Hydrogen and Future Energy Sources
Picture of DaimlerChrysler Necar 4 - 1999
We learned in Chapter 8 that fossil fuels were formed before and during the time of the dinosaurs – when plants and animals died. Their decomposed remains gradually changed over the years to form coal, oil and natural gas. Fossil fuels took millions of years to make. We are using up the fuels formed more than 65 million years ago. They can't be renewed; they can't be made again. We can save fossil fuels by conserving and finding ways to harness energy from seemingly "endless sources," like the sun and the wind.
We can't use fossil fuels forever as they are a non-renewable and finite resource. Some people suggest that we should start using hydrogen.
Hydrogen is a colorless, odorless gas that accounts for 75 percent of the entire universe's mass. Hydrogen is found on Earth only in combination with other elements such as oxygen, carbon and nitrogen. To use hydrogen, it must be separated from these other elements.
Today, hydrogen is used primarily in ammonia manufacturing, petroleum refining and synthesis of methanol. It's also used in NASA's space program as fuel for the space shuttles, and in fuel cells that provide heat, electricity and drinking water for astronauts. Fuel cells are devices that directly convert hydrogen into electricity. In the future, hydrogen could be used to fuel vehicles (such as the DaimlerChrysler NeCar 4 shown in the picture to the right) and aircraft, and provide power for our homes and offices.

Hydrogen Water Cars – Our Future to Save Gas Using Water

Hydrogen Water Cars – Our Future to Save Gas Using Water

Hydrogen baptize cars are our approaching for sure. With the fact, that oil is dematerialization with every day and gas prices are accretion with every hour, it’s important to alpha analytic for award a way to use another activity resources.  And assuredly they begin such a way. A baby aggregation In Canada, Toronto – Rothman Technologies, invented a gas that is fabricated from water. It was alleged Brown’s gas. Nowadays, this gas is advised as best ammunition for our vehicles.
How does Brown’s gas work?
First of all, Brown’s gas is fabricated of water, like authentic hydrogen, but it burns in agitation engine, so depending on the bureaucracy it can in fact absolution oxygen into atmosphere. Yes you heard it, it can absolution air. So basically, active your car you even advice the environment, by absolution oxygen into atmosphere. Not alone it helps attributes it is a lot cheaper to aftermath such affectionate of fuel. People who are application such technology are already accumulation hundreds of dollars per week. Imagine how abundant money you could save per year.
Experts and analytics said that gas prices will abide to abound rapidly, and by the end of 2008 they could even access by 20%, or about 5$ for a gallon. And by the way abounding car bearing companies, such as BMW, Audi VW and abounding others, already started creating hydrogen vehicles. Like for example, the new BMW Hydrogen 7. But we would like to add, that it is actual simple to catechumen your car to save gas application baptize yourself and that way you will not be cerebration about affairs new car that runs hydrogen, because probably, they will be actual big-ticket for the aboriginal time. I apperceive a lot of accompany who adapted their car to save gas application baptize and now they save a lot of money on fuel.

Electrolysis of Water - An Explanation

Electrolysis of Water - An Explanation

Electrolysis of Water - An Explanation
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This section is an explanation of the electrolysis of water, feel free to skip it if you don't find it interesting.

2H2O(l) = 2H2(g) + O2(g)

As everyone knows a water molecule is formed by two elements: two positive Hydrogen ions and one negative Oxygen ion. The water molecule is held together by the electromagnetic attraction between these ions. When electricity is introduced to water through two electrodes, a cathode (negative) and an anode (positive), these ions are attracted to the opposite charged electrode. Therefore the positively charged hydrogen ions will collect on the cathode and the negatively charged oxygen will collect on the anode.

When these ions come into contact with their respective electrodes they either gain or lose electrons depending on there ionic charge. (In this case the hydrogen gains electrons and the oxygen loses them) In doing so these ions balance their charges, and become real, electrically balanced, bona fide atoms (or in the case of the hydrogen, a molecule).

The reason this system isn't very efficient is because some of the electrical energy is converted into heat during the process. There have been reports of 50%-70% efficiency, but I doubt that is possible in a home environment. Anyway, enough with the boring stuff, lets go make some gas!

Separate Hydrogen and Oxygen from Water Through Electrolysis

Separate Hydrogen and Oxygen from Water Through Electrolysis



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Separate Hydrogen and Oxygen from Water Through Electrolysis
i
Electrolysis a method of separating elements by pushing an electric current through a compound. It is used in various industrial applications such as removing copper from its ore. It is also used to separate hydrogen and oxygen from water. Electrolysis isn't the most efficient way to obtain hydrogen, but it is one of the easiest and cheapest ways to "homebrew" hydrogen.

Hydrogen is the most abundant element in the universe. With the "green-energy" craze and talk of powering our future oil-free economy on hydrogen, it has gotten much attention in the last few years. Learning about this potential fuel of the future is important and interesting. Besides, hydrogen is a powerful fuel, and blowing stuff up in the name of science is fun .